Kedu ihe ị ga-eme ma ọ bụrụ na nlele ụda na-akwadoghị?

Kedu ihe ị ga-eme ma ọ bụrụ na nlele ụda na-akwadoghị?

Nlereanya ụda ma ọ bụ nlele egwu bụ usoro a na-ejikarị eme ihe ugbu a ebe a na-eṅomi iberi ụda n'ụdị eletrọnịkị iji jiri ya mee ihe, na-emekarị n'ụdị gbanwetụrụ, n'ọrụ ọhụrụ (egwu), na-abụkarị site n'enyemaka nke kọmputa. Otú ọ dị, iberibe ụda nwere ike ịdabere n'ikike dị iche iche, n'ihi ya, nlele na-enweghị ikike nwere ike bụrụ iwu na-akwadoghị.

Nlele na-eji iberibe ụda dị adị. Ihe mejupụtara, egwu egwu, arụmọrụ na ndekọ nke mpekere ụda ndị a nwere ike bụrụ ihe edobere n'aka nwebisiinka. Enwere ike ichekwa ihe mejupụtara ya na egwu ya site na ikike nwebisiinka. Enwere ike ichekwa (ndekọ nke) arụmọrụ site na ikike metụtara onye na-eme ihe nkiri, yana phonogram (ihe ndekọ ahụ) nwere ike ichekwa ya site na ikike metụtara nke onye mmepụta phonogram. Nkeji edemede 2 nke EU Copyright Directive (2001/29) na-enye onye edemede, onye na-eme ihe nkiri, na onye na-emepụta phonogram ikike ịmụ nwa, bụ nke na-agbadata ikike inye ikike ma ọ bụ machibido mmepụta nke 'ihe' echedoro. Onye edemede nwere ike ịbụ onye dere na / ma ọ bụ onye edemede nke egwu, ndị na-abụ abụ na / ma ọ bụ ndị na-egwu egwu na-abụkarị ndị na-eme ihe nkiri (Nkebi nke 1 n'okpuru a of the Neighboring Rights Act (NRA)) na onye na-emepụta phonogram bụ onye mere ndekọ mbụ. , ma ọ bụ mee ya ma buru ihe ize ndụ ego (Nkeji edemede 1 n'okpuru d nke NRA). Mgbe onye na-ese ihe na-ede, na-eme ihe, na-edekọ ma na-ewepụta egwu nke ya n'okpuru nlekọta nke ya, ndị a dị iche iche na-ejikọta ọnụ n'otu onye. Ikike nwebiisinka na ikike so ya dị n'aka otu onye.

Kedu ihe ị ga-eme ma ọ bụrụ na nlele ụda na-akwadoghị?

Na Netherlands, etinyere ntuziaka nwebiisinka na iwu nwebiisinka (CA) na NRA, n'etiti ihe ndị ọzọ. Nkeji 1 nke CA na-echebe ikike mmeputa nke odee. Iwu nwebiisinka na-eji okwu 'mmeputakwa' kama 'mbipụta', mana na omume, okwu abụọ a yitere. A na-echekwa ikike mmeputakwa nke onye na-eme ihe nkiri na onye na-emepụta phonogram site na ngalaba 2 na 6, n'otu n'otu, nke NRA. Dịka ntuziaka nwebiisinka, ndokwa ndị a anaghị akọwapụta ihe mejupụtara mmeputakwa (zuru oke ma ọ bụ nke akụkụ). Site na ihe atụ: Nkebi nke 13 nke iwu nwebiisinka na-enye nke ahụ "Nhazi ọ bụla zuru oke ma ọ bụ akụkụ akụkụ ma ọ bụ nṅomi n'ụdị gbanwere” mejupụtara ọmụmụ. Ya mere mmeputakwa gụnyere ihe karịrị otu nnomi 1-na-1, mana amabeghị nke njiri mara ekwesịrị iji nyochaa ikpe oke. Enweghị nkọwa doro anya a enweela mmetụta na omume nke nlele ụda ruo ogologo oge. Ndị na-ese ihe atụ amaghi mgbe a na-emebi ikike ha.

Na 2019, Ụlọikpe Ikpe nke European Union (CJEU) kọwara nke a n'otu akụkụ na Pelham ikpe, na-eso ajụjụ mmalite nke German Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) welitere (CJEU 29 Julaị 2019, C-476/17, ECLI:EU:C:2019:624). Ndị CJEU chọpụtara, n'etiti ndị ọzọ, na ihe nlele nwere ike ịbụ mmeghari nke phonogram, n'agbanyeghị ogologo ihe nlele ahụ (para. 29). Ya mere, otu ihe nlele nke abụọ nwekwara ike bụrụ mmebi iwu. Tụkwasị na nke ahụ, e kpebiri na "ebe, na mmega ahụ nke nnwere onwe ikwu okwu, onye ọrụ na-edepụta iberibe ụda site na phonogram maka iji rụọ ọrụ ọhụrụ, n'ụdị gbanwere nke a na-apụghị ịmata na ntị, a ga-ewere ya dị otú ahụ na ọ bụghị 'mmepụta'. n'ime nkọwa nke edemede 2(c) nke ntuziaka 2001/29′ (paragraf nke 31, akụkụ ọrụ n'okpuru 1). Ya mere, ọ bụrụ na e deziela ihe nlele n'ụzọ nke na-agaghịzi amata iberi ụda e weghaara na mbụ na ntị, ọ dịghị ajụjụ ọ bụla gbasara mmeghari nke phonogram. N'ọnọdụ ahụ, ikike maka nlele ụda sitere n'aka ndị nwere ikike dị mkpa adịghị mkpa. Mgbe ntughari aka sitere na CJEU, BGH kpebiri na 30 Eprel 2020 na Metall auf Metall IV, nke o kwuru kpọmkwem ntị nke ihe nlele ahụ ga-abụrịrị nke a na-apụghị ịmata: ntị nke ndị na-ege egwu egwu (BGH 30 April 2020, I ZR 115/16)Metall auf Metall IV), para. 29). Ọ bụ ezie na ikpe nke ECJ na BGH metụtara ikike metụtara ndị na-emepụta phonogram, ọ bụ ihe ezi uche dị na ya na njirisi edebere na ikpe ndị a na-emetụtakwa mmebi iwu site na nleba anya ụda nke nwebisiinka na ikike nke onye na-eme ihe. Ikike nwebiisinka na ikike ndị yiri ya nke onye na-eme ihe nkiri nwere oke nchebe dị elu ka ịrịọ maka ikike metụtara nke onye na-emepụta phonogram ga-eme nke ọma karị ma ọ bụrụ na ebubo ebubo ịda iwu site na nlele ụda. Maka nchekwa nwebiisinka, dịka ọmụmaatụ, iberi ụda ga-erurịrị dị ka 'ihe okike ọgụgụ isi'. Enweghị ihe nchekwa dị otú a chọrọ maka nchekwa ikike ndị agbata obi nke ndị na-emepụta phonogram.

N'ụkpụrụ, ọ bụ ya mere, mmebi nke mmeputakwa ikike ma ọ bụrụ na mmadụ samples a -ada n'ụzọ a na-amata na nkezi ndị na-ege egwu. Agbanyeghị, Nkeji edemede 5 nke ntuziaka nwebiisinka nwere ọtụtụ oke na mwepu na ikike mmeputakwa na Nkeji edemede 2 nke ntuziaka nwebiisinka, gụnyere mwepu nkwuputa okwu na mwepu maka parody. Nlereanya ụda n'ọnọdụ azụmahịa nkịtị agaghị ejikarị nke a kpuchie ya, n'ihi iwu siri ike chọrọ.

Onye chọtara onwe ya n'ọnọdụ ebe a na-atụpụta iberibe ụda ya kwesịrị ịjụ onwe ya ajụjụ a:

  • Onye nlere anya nwere ikike ime nke a site n'aka ndị nwere ikike?
  • E deziela ihe nlele ahụ iji mee ka ndị na-ege egwu na-ege ntị ghara ịmata ya?
  • Ihe nlele ahụ ọ dabara n'okpuru ihe ọ bụla ma ọ bụ oke?

Ọ bụrụ na ebubo ebubo mmebi iwu, enwere ike ịme ihe n'ụzọ ndị a:

  • Zipụ akwụkwọ ịkpọ oku ka ịkwụsị mmebi ahụ.
    • Nzọụkwụ mbụ ezi uche dị na ya ma ọ bụrụ na ịchọrọ ka mmebi iwu kwụsị ozugbo enwere ike. Karịsịa ma ọ bụrụ na ị naghị achọ mmebi mana naanị ịchọrọ ka mmebi iwu ahụ kwụsị.
  • Gị na onye a na-ebo ebubo imebi iwu kparịta ụka doro anya nlele.
    • O nwere ike bụrụ na onye ahụ eboro ebubo mebiri emebi emeghị ụma, ma ọ bụ opekata mpe, n'echeghị echiche ugboro abụọ, mebie ikike mmadụ. N'ọnọdụ ahụ, onye ahụ eboro ebubo imebi iwu nwere ike ịgba akwụkwọ ma mee ka o doo anya na mmebi iwu emeela. Site n'ebe ahụ, enwere ike ịmekọrịta ọnọdụ maka ịnye ikike site n'aka onye na-ejide ikike iji nlele. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, onye ji ikike nwere ike ịchọ onyinye, ụgwọ ọrụ kwesịrị ekwesị, ma ọ bụ ụgwọ eze. A na-akpọkwa usoro inye na ịnweta ikike maka sample nhichapu. N'ime usoro a na-emekarị, usoro a na-eme tupu mmebi ọ bụla emee.
  • Ịmalite ihe omume obodo n'ụlọ ikpe megide onye ebubo ebubo imebi iwu.
    • Enwere ike nyefee nkwupụta n'ụlọ ikpe dabere na mmebi ikike nwebiisinka ma ọ bụ ikike emetụtara. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, enwere ike ịzọrọ na onye nke ọzọ emeela ihe n'ụzọ iwu na-akwadoghị site na imebi (Ikeji 3: 302 nke Dutch Civil Code), enwere ike ị nweta mmebi (Ikeji 27 nke CA, Nkeji edemede 16 paragraf 1 nke NRA) na uru. enwere ike inyefe (Ikeji 27a nke CA, Nkeji edemede 16 paragraf 2 nke NRA).

Law & More ga-enwe obi ụtọ inyere gị aka na idepụta akwụkwọ ozi achọrọ, mkparita uka nke onye ebubo ebubo na-emebi iwu na/ma ọ bụ mmalite nke usoro iwu.

Nzuzo Ntọala
Anyị na-eji kuki iji kwalite ahụmịhe gị mgbe ị na-eji weebụsaịtị anyị. Ọ bụrụ na ị na-eji ọrụ anyị site na ihe nchọgharị ị nwere ike machibido, gbochie ma ọ bụ wepụ kuki site na ntọala ihe nchọgharị weebụ gị. Anyị na-ejikwa ọdịnaya na edemede sitere na ndị ọzọ nwere ike iji teknụzụ nsuso. Ị nwere ike ịhọrọ ịnye nkwenye gị n'okpuru iji kwe ka ntinye ndị ọzọ dị otú ahụ. Maka ozi zuru oke gbasara kuki anyị na-eji, data anyị na-anakọta yana otu anyị si hazie ya, biko lelee nke anyị amụma nzuzo
Law & More B.V.