Yanke hukunci a shari’ar da ta shafi Shell

Hukuncin Kotun Gunduma na Hague game da shari'ar Milieudefensie game da Royal Dutch Shell PLC (a nan gaba: 'RDS') babban ci gaba ne a shari'ar yanayi. Ga Netherlands, wannan ita ce mataki na gaba bayan tabbatar da yanke hukuncin Urgenda da Kotun Koli ta yi, inda aka umarci jihar da ta rage fitar da hayakin da take fitarwa daidai da manufofin Yarjejeniyar Paris. A karo na farko, har ila yau kamfani kamar RDS yanzu an wajabta masa ɗaukar mataki don magance canjin yanayi mai haɗari. Wannan labarin zai fayyace manyan abubuwa da kuma tasirin wannan hukuncin.

Yanke hukunci a shari’ar da ta shafi Shell

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Da fari dai, yarda da da'awar yana da mahimmanci. Kafin kotu ta iya shiga cikin abin da ake zargi na farar hula, dole ne a yarda da da'awar. Kotun ta yanke hukuncin cewa kawai ayyukan gama kai ne wadanda ke biyan bukatun 'yan kasar Dutch na yanzu da masu zuwa. Waɗannan ayyukan, akasin ayyukan da ke biyan bukatun jama'ar duniya, suna da cikakkiyar sha'awa iri ɗaya. Wannan saboda sakamakon da citizensan ƙasar Holan za su fuskanta daga canjin yanayi ya bambanta zuwa na ƙasa da na yawan mutanen duniya gaba ɗaya. ActionAid baya isar da wakilcin takamaiman buƙatun jama'ar Yaren mutanen Holland tare da ƙaddaraccen manufar duniya. Saboda haka, ba a yarda da da'awar tasa ba. An kuma bayyana cewa masu shigar da karar ba su da izinin a cikin da'awar tasu, saboda ba su nuna isasshen sha'awar mutum da za a yarda da shi ba tare da da'awar gama kai.

Yanayin shari'ar

Yanzu da yake wasu daga cikin da'awar da aka shigar an bayyana cewa sun yarda da su, kotun ta iya tantance su sosai. Don ba da izinin iƙirarin Milieudefensie cewa RDS ya zama dole a cimma ragowar fitarwa ta hanyar kashi 45%, da farko Kotun ta yanke hukunci cewa irin wannan alhakin yana kan RDS. Dole ne a tantance wannan bisa tsarin aikin fasaha da ba a rubuta ba. 6: 162 DCC, wanda duk yanayin shari'ar ya taka rawa. Yanayin da Kotun ta yi la'akari da shi sun haɗa da masu zuwa. RDS ta ƙaddamar da manufofin ƙungiyar ga ɗaukacin rukunin Shell wanda wasu kamfanoni ke aiwatarwa daga baya. Kungiyar Shell, tare da masu samar da ita da kwastomominta, suna da alhakin fitarwa CO2 mai yawa, wadanda suka fi yawan hayakin wasu jihohi, ciki har da Netherlands. Wadannan hayakin suna haifar da canjin yanayi, wanda mazaunan Dutch ke ji da sakamakonsa (misali a cikin lafiyarsu, amma kuma a matsayin haɗarin jiki saboda, a tsakanin sauran abubuwa, hauhawar matakan teku).

Hakkin ɗan adam

Sakamakon sauyin yanayi da 'yan ƙasar Dutch suka fuskanta, da sauransu, ya shafi haƙƙinsu na ɗan adam, musamman haƙƙin rayuwa da' yancin walwala. Kodayake ainihin haƙƙin ɗan adam yana aiki tsakanin 'yan ƙasa da gwamnati saboda haka babu wani wajibi kai tsaye ga kamfanoni, kamfanoni dole ne su mutunta waɗannan haƙƙoƙin. Wannan kuma ya shafi idan jihohi suka kasa kariya daga take hakki. An kuma haɗa haƙƙin ɗan adam da dole kamfanoni su girmama doka mai taushi kayan kida kamar su Ka'idodin Jagora na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Kasuwanci da 'Yancin Dan Adam, wanda RDS ya amince dashi, da kuma Sharuɗɗan OECD na Mungiyoyin Masana'antu. Abubuwan da suka fi dacewa daga waɗannan kayan aikin suna ba da gudummawa ga fassarar tsarin kulawa mara kyau wanda ba a rubuta shi ba wanda za'a iya ɗaukar nauyin RDS, a cewar kotun.

wajibi

Hakkin kamfanoni na mutunta haƙƙin ɗan adam ya dogara da muhimmancin tasirin ayyukansu akan haƙƙin ɗan adam. Kotun ta ɗauka wannan a game da RDS dangane da gaskiyar da aka bayyana a sama. Bugu da ƙari, kafin a ɗauka irin wannan wajibi, yana da mahimmanci kamfanin ya sami wadatar dama da tasiri don hana cin zarafin. Kotun ta ɗauka cewa wannan batun ne saboda kamfanoni suna da tasiri a cikin duka sarkar darajar: duka tsakanin kamfanin / rukuni kanta ta hanyar ƙirƙirar siyasa da kan abokan ciniki da masu kawowa ta hanyar samar da kayayyaki da sabis. Saboda tasirin ya fi girma a cikin kamfanin kanta, RDS yana ƙarƙashin wajibi don cimma sakamako. RDS dole ne suyi ƙoƙari a madadin masu kaya da abokan ciniki.

Kotun ta tantance girman wannan wajibin kamar haka. Dangane da Yarjejeniyar Paris da rahoton IPCC, ƙa'idar da aka yarda da ita game da ɗumamar yanayi ta iyakance zuwa matsakaicin digiri na 1.5 a ma'aunin Celsius. Rage da'awar da aka yi ikirarin na 45%, tare da 2019 kamar 0, a cewar kotun ta dace sosai bisa lamuran ragin kamar yadda IPCC ta gabatar Sabili da haka, ana iya ɗaukar wannan azaman wajibcin raguwa. Irin wannan wajibi ne kawai kotu za ta iya sanya shi idan RDS ta kasa ko ta yi barazanar gazawa a cikin wannan wajibcin. Kotun ta nuna cewa wannan batun haka ne, tunda manufar kungiyar ba ta wadatar sosai don cire irin wannan barazanar keta haddi.

Yanke shawara da kariya

Don haka kotun ta umarci RDS da sauran kamfanonin dake cikin kungiyar ta Shell da su takaita ko kuma su sanya iyakance adadin yawan adadin hayakin CO2 da yake fitarwa zuwa yanayi (Scope 1, 2 da 3) masu alaƙa da ayyukan kasuwancin ƙungiyar ta Shell da sayar da makamashi- dauke da kayayyaki ta yadda da karshen shekarar 2030 wannan karfin zai ragu da akalla kashi 45% idan aka kwatanta shi da matakin shekarar 2019. Kariyar RDS ba ta isa ta kiyaye wannan tsari ba. Misali, kotu tayi la’akari da hujjar cikakken sauyawa, wanda ke nuna cewa wani ne zai karbi ragamar ayyukan kungiyar ta Shell idan aka sanya wani ragi na ragi, wanda bai isa ba. Bugu da kari, gaskiyar cewa RDS ba ita kadai ke da alhakin canjin yanayi ba ta sauƙaƙa RDS daga nauyi na ƙoƙari da nauyi na iyakance ɗumamar yanayi da kotu ta ɗauka.

effects

Wannan kuma ya bayyana karara menene sakamakon wannan hukuncin ga sauran kamfanoni. Idan suna da alhakin yawan fitar da hayaki (misali, sauran kamfanonin mai da iskar gas), za'a kuma iya kai su kotu kuma a yanke musu hukunci idan kamfanin bai yi kasa a gwiwa ba ta hanyar tsarinta na takaita wadannan hayakin. Wannan haɗarin abin alhaki ya yi kira da a ƙara tsaurara manufofin rage watsi a duk cikin sarkar darajar, watau na kamfanin da kungiyar ita kanta harma ga kwastomomin ta da masu kawo ta. Don wannan manufar, ana iya yin amfani da irin wannan ragin azaman ragin ragewa zuwa RDS.

Babban hukuncin da aka yanke game da shari'ar Milieudefensie game da RDS yana da sakamako mai yawa, ba wai ga Kamfanin Shell ba har ma da sauran kamfanoni da ke ba da gagarumar gudummawa ga canjin yanayi. Koyaya, waɗannan sakamakon zasu iya zama hujja ta buƙatar gaggawa don hana canjin yanayi mai haɗari. Shin kuna da wasu tambayoyi game da wannan hukuncin da kuma sakamakon da zai iya haifarwa ga kamfanin ku? Don Allah a tuntuɓi Law & More. Lauyoyinmu kwararru ne a cikin dokar alhaki kuma za su yi farin cikin taimaka muku.

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