Cryptocurrency: Tarayyar Turai da Lauyoyi game da Fasaha ta Juyin Juya Hali

Gabatarwa

Ci gaban duniya da karuwar shahararren cryptocurrency ya haifar da tambayoyi game da al'amurran ka'idoji na wannan sabon al'amari na kudi. Kudaden Virtual dijital na musamman ne kuma an tsara su ta hanyar sadarwar da aka sani da blockchain, wanda yake shine jagoran layi wanda ke kiyaye rikodin kowane ma'amala gaba daya a wuri guda. Babu wanda ke iko da blockchain, saboda waɗannan sarkar an yanke su a duk kwamfutar da ke da walat ɗin Bitcoin. Wannan yana nufin babu wata ƙungiya ɗaya da ke sarrafa hanyar sadarwar, wanda a zahiri tana nuna kasancewar haɗarin kuɗi da na doka da yawa.

Abubuwan farawa na Blockchain sun rungumi Kyautar Kyautar Kudin Farko (ICOs) azaman hanya don haɓaka farkon jari. ICO kyauta ce ta inda kamfani zai iya siyar da alamun dijital ga jama'a don samun kuɗin gudanarwar aiki da kuma cimma wasu manufofin kasuwanci. [1] Hakanan ICOs ba'a bin takamaiman ƙa'idodi ko hukumomin gwamnati. Wannan rashin ƙa'idar ya haifar da damuwa game da haɗarin da masu saka hannun jari ke fuskanta. A sakamakon haka, canzawa ya zama abin damuwa. Abin takaici, idan mai saka jari ya rasa kudade yayin wannan aikin, ba su da ingantacciyar hanyar da za su bi don dawo da kuɗin da suka ɓace.

Cryptocurrency - Tarayyar Turai da Yaren Lafiyar Jama'a Game da Fasaha ta Juyin Juya Hali

Kudin Virtual a matakin Turai

Hadarin da ke tattare da yin amfani da kuɗin kwalliya ya ɗaga buƙatar ƙungiyar Tarayyar Turai da cibiyoyinta don daidaitawa. Koyaya, tsari a matakin Tarayyar Turai abu ne mai matuƙar wahala, saboda sauye sauyen tsarin EU da daidaiton ka'idoji tsakanin ƙasashe membobin.

Amma game da yanzu hanyoyin tallafin kwastomomi ba a tsara su a matakin EU kuma ba su da kulawa ko kulawa da duk wata hukuma ta EU, kodayake sa hannu a cikin waɗannan tsare-tsaren yana fallasa masu amfani ga lamuni, yawan aiki, haɗari da haɗarin doka. Wannan yana nufin cewa hukumomi na kasa suna buƙatar yin la'akari ko suna da niyyar amincewa ko tsarawa da kuma tsara tsarin cryptocurrency.

Kayan aikin Virtual a Netherlands

Dangane da Dokar Kula da Kuɗin Kuɗi ta Dutch (FSA) kuɗin lantarki suna wakiltar ƙimar kuɗi wanda aka adana ta hanyar lantarki ko ta hanyar maganadiso. Wannan ƙimar kuɗin an yi niyyar amfani da shi don aiwatar da ma'amaloli na biyan kuɗi kuma ana iya amfani da shi don biyan kuɗi ga wasu ɓangarorin fiye da wanda ya ba da kuɗin lantarki. [2] Ba za a iya bayyana kuɗin kama-da-wane a matsayin kuɗin lantarki ba, saboda ba duk ƙa'idodin shari'a ake cika su ba. Idan ba za a iya bayyana ma'anar cryptocurrency azaman doka ko kuɗin lantarki ba, kamar yaya za a iya bayyana ta? A cikin mahallin Dokar Kula da Kuɗin Kuɗin Kuɗi ta cryptocurrency matsakaiciyar musayar kuɗi ce. Kowane mutum na da 'yancin yin kasuwancin sayayyar, saboda haka ba a buƙatar izini ta hanyar lasisi. Ministan Kudin ya nuna cewa bita game da ma'anar doka ta kudin lantarki ba abu ne mai kyau ba tukuna, saboda karancin ikon bitcoin, matsakaiciyar matakin karba, da iyakantacciyar dangantaka da tattalin arzikin gaske. Ya nanata cewa mabukaci ne kawai ke da alhakin amfani da su. [3]

Dangane da Kotun Yankin Dutch (Overijssel) da Ministan Kudin na Holan wani kudin kamala, kamar Bitcoin, yana da matsayin matsakaiciyar musayar kudi. [4] A cikin roko Kotun Dutch ta yi la’akari da cewa bitcoins na iya cancanta azaman abubuwan da aka siyar kamar yadda aka ambata a cikin labarin 7:36 DCC. Har ila yau Kotun Apaukaka Dutchara ta Dutch ta bayyana cewa bitcoins ba za su iya zama masu ƙarancin doka ba amma kawai a matsayin matsakaiciyar musayar. Sabanin haka, Kotun Turai ta yanke hukunci cewa ya kamata a kula da bitcoins a matsayin hanyar biya, a kaikaice yana ba da shawarar cewa bitcoins suna kama da tayin doka. [5]

Kammalawa

Saboda rikitarwa wanda ya shafi tsarin abubuwan cryptocurrencies, ana iya ɗauka cewa Kotun Justiceoli na EU dole ne ya shiga cikin fayyace ma'anar kalmar. Game da Membobin Statesungiyar da suka zaɓi daidaita yanayin ƙayyadadden kalmar ta EU daban, matsalolin na iya tasowa dangane da fassarar da ta dace da dokokin EU. Daga wannan hangen nesa, ya zama dole a ba da shawara ga Membobin Tarayyar cewa su bi ka'idar dokokin EU yayin aiwatar da dokoki a cikin dokokin kasa.

Ana samun cikakken sigar wannan farin takarda ta wannan hanyar haɗin yanar gizon.

lamba

Idan kuna da tambayoyi ko tsokaci bayan karanta wannan labarin, da fatan za ku iya tuntuɓar mr. Maxim Hodak, lauya-at-law a Law & More ta hanyar maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, ko mr. Tom Meevis, lauya ne a Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, ko kira + 31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs. IPO: Menene Bambanci ?, Jaridar Kasuwancin Bitcoin september 2017.

[2] Dokar Kula da Kuɗi, sashe 1: 1

[3] Minista van Financiën, Beantwoording van kamervragen akan het gebruik van en toezicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, december 2013.

[4] ECLI: NL: RBOVE: 2014: 2667.

[5] ECLI: EU: C: 2015: 718.

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