Cryptocurrency: Tarayyar Turai da Lauyoyi game da Fasaha ta Juyin Juya Hali

Gabatarwa

Ci gaban duniya da karuwar shahararren cryptocurrency ya haifar da tambayoyi game da al'amurran ka'idoji na wannan sabon al'amari na kudi. Kudaden Virtual dijital na musamman ne kuma an tsara su ta hanyar sadarwar da aka sani da blockchain, wanda yake shine jagoran layi wanda ke kiyaye rikodin kowane ma'amala gaba daya a wuri guda. Babu wanda ke iko da blockchain, saboda waɗannan sarkar an yanke su a duk kwamfutar da ke da walat ɗin Bitcoin. Wannan yana nufin babu wata ƙungiya ɗaya da ke sarrafa hanyar sadarwar, wanda a zahiri tana nuna kasancewar haɗarin kuɗi da na doka da yawa.

Abubuwan da ke farawa na Blockchain sun rungumi Harkokin Ba da Kyautar Gidaje (ICOs) a matsayin hanyar haɓaka babban birnin kudade. ICO kyauta ne wanda kamfanin zai iya sayar da alamomin dijital ga jama'a don samun kuɗin gudanar da ayyukan don cimma wasu manufofin kasuwanci. [1] Hakanan ICOs ba a ƙarƙashinsu ta takamaiman dokoki ko hukumomin gwamnati. Wannan rashin tsari ya haifar da fargaba game da hadarin da masu sa hannun jari ke fuskanta. A sakamakon haka, rashin ƙarfi ya zama abin damuwa. Abin takaici, idan mai saka jari yana asarar kuɗi yayin wannan aikin, ba su da ingantaccen tafarkin aiwatar da aiki don dawo da kuɗin da suka ɓace.

Cryptocurrency - Tarayyar Turai da Yaren Lafiyar Jama'a Game da Fasaha ta Juyin Juya Hali

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Kudin Virtual a matakin Turai

Hadarin da ke tattare da yin amfani da kuɗin kwalliya ya ɗaga buƙatar ƙungiyar Tarayyar Turai da cibiyoyinta don daidaitawa. Koyaya, tsari a matakin Tarayyar Turai abu ne mai matuƙar wahala, saboda sauye sauyen tsarin EU da daidaiton ka'idoji tsakanin ƙasashe membobin.

Amma game da yanzu hanyoyin tallafin kwastomomi ba a tsara su a matakin EU kuma ba su da kulawa ko kulawa da duk wata hukuma ta EU, kodayake sa hannu a cikin waɗannan tsare-tsaren yana fallasa masu amfani ga lamuni, yawan aiki, haɗari da haɗarin doka. Wannan yana nufin cewa hukumomi na kasa suna buƙatar yin la'akari ko suna da niyyar amincewa ko tsarawa da kuma tsara tsarin cryptocurrency.

Kayan aikin Virtual a Netherlands

Dangane da Dokar Kula da Kasuwanci na Dutch (FSA) kudi na lantarki yana wakiltar darajar kuɗi wanda aka adana ta hanyar lantarki ko magnetically. Wannan darajar kuɗi an yi nufin amfani dashi ne don aiwatar da ma'amala na biya kuma ana iya amfani dashi don biyan kuɗi zuwa wasu ɓangarorin sama da wanda ya bayar da kudin lantarki. [2] Ba za a iya bayyana agogon cikin gari azaman kuɗin lantarki ba, saboda ba duk sharuddan doka da aka cika ba. Idan ba za a iya bayyana ma'anar cryptocurrency a matsayin kuɗi ko kudin lantarki ba, to menene za a iya bayyanawa? A cikin mahallin Dokar Kula da Kasuwanci na Dutch cryptocurrency kawai matsakaiciyar musayar. Kowane mutum na da 'yancin shiga cikin harkokin ciniki, saboda haka ba a buƙatar izini ta hanyar lasisi ba. Ministan Kudi ya nuna cewa sake fasalin ingantaccen ma'anar doka ta kudi na lantarki ba ta zama mai kyau ba, saboda iyakancewar bitcoin, ƙarancin matakan yarda, da taƙaitacciyar dangantaka da tattalin arzikin gaske. Ya jaddada cewa mabukaci ne kawai ke da alhakin amfanin su. [3]

A cewar Kotun Gundumar Dutch (Overijssel) da Ministan Kudi na Dutch wani tsararren kuɗi, kamar Bitcoin, yana da matsayin matsakaitan musayar. [4] A cikin roko Kotun Holland ya yi la'akari da cewa bitcoins na iya cancanta kamar abubuwan sayarwa kamar yadda aka ambata a cikin labarin 7:36 DCC. Kotun daukaka kara ta Dutch ta kuma bayyana cewa bitcoins din ba za su iya zama masu matsayin doka ba sai kawai a matsayin masu musayar kudi. Sabanin haka, Kotun Tarayyar Turai ta yanke hukuncin cewa ya kamata a kula da bitcoins a matsayin wata hanyar biyan kudi, kai tsaye cewa ba da shawarar bitcoins sun yi kama da na doka. [5]

Kammalawa

Saboda rikitarwa wanda ya shafi tsarin abubuwan cryptocurrencies, ana iya ɗauka cewa Kotun Justiceoli na EU dole ne ya shiga cikin fayyace ma'anar kalmar. Game da Membobin Statesungiyar da suka zaɓi daidaita yanayin ƙayyadadden kalmar ta EU daban, matsalolin na iya tasowa dangane da fassarar da ta dace da dokokin EU. Daga wannan hangen nesa, ya zama dole a ba da shawara ga Membobin Tarayyar cewa su bi ka'idar dokokin EU yayin aiwatar da dokoki a cikin dokokin kasa.

Ana samun cikakken sigar wannan farin takarda ta wannan hanyar haɗin yanar gizon.

lamba

Idan kuna da tambayoyi ko tsokaci bayan karanta wannan labarin, da fatan za ku iya tuntuɓar mr. Maxim Hodak, lauya-at-law a Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or mr. Tom Meevis, attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs. IPO: Menene Banbancin?, Sakamakon Kasuwancin Kasuwanci na Bitcoin a watan Satumba na 2017.

[2] Dokar Kula da Kasuwanci, sashi na 1: 1

[3] Minista van Financiën, Beantwoording van kamervragen akan het gebruik van en toezicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, december 2013.

[4] ECLI: NL: RBOVE: 2014: 2667.

[5] ECLI: EU: C: 2015: 718.

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