Cryptocurrency: sane da haɗarin haɗarin

Gabatarwa

A cikin al'umma mai saurin tasowa, cryptocurrency ya zama sananne. A halin yanzu, akwai nau'ikan cryptocurrency da yawa, irin su Bitcoin, Ethereum, da Litecoin. Cryptocurrencies na zamani ne na dijital, kuma ana adana agogo da fasaha ta amfani da fasaha na blockchain. Wannan fasaha tana kiyaye rikodin rikodin kowane ma'amala duk a wuri guda. Babu wanda yake iko da blockchain tunda waɗannan sarƙoƙi suna ƙin faɗi a duk kwamfutar da take da walat ɗin cryptocurrency. Har ila yau, fasahar Blockchain tana ba da isasshen sanarwa ga masu amfani da cryptocurrency. Rashin sarrafawa da kuma rashin sanin amfanin masu amfani na iya haifar da wasu haɗari ga entrepreneursan kasuwar da ke son yin amfani da cryptocurrency a kamfaninsu. Wannan labarin cigaban labarin da muka gabata, 'Cryptocurrency: halayen shari'a na fasahar juyin juya hali'. Ganin cewa wannan labarin da ya gabata yafi kusanci da janar na shari'a na cryptocurrency, wannan labarin ya mayar da hankali kan haɗarin da masu kasuwancin zasu iya fuskanta yayin ma'amala da cryptocurrency da mahimmancin yarda.

 

Hadarin tuhuma da yin garkuwa da mutane

Duk da yake cryptocurrency samu shahara, har yanzu ba a tsara shi a cikin Netherlands da sauran Turai. Yan majalisan na aiki kan aiwatar da cikakkun dokoki, amma wannan zaiyi dogon tsari. Koyaya, kotunan ƙasa ta Dutch sun riga sun yanke hukunce-hukunce da yawa a cikin shari'o'in da suka shafi cryptocurrency. Kodayake 'yan yanke shawara game da matsayin doka na cryptocurrency, yawancin shari'o'in sun kasance a cikin yanayin masu laifi. Satar kudi ta taka rawa sosai a wadannan hukunce-hukuncen.

Laaddamar da kuɗi wani yanki ne da yakamata a yi la’akari da shi don tabbatar da cewa ƙungiyarku ba ta faɗi ƙarƙashin Criminala'idar Sashin Hotunan na Dutch ba. Kashe kudade wani abu ne da zai ladabtar da shi a karkashin dokar ta Dutch. An kafa wannan a cikin labaran 420bis, 420ter da 420 na kundin laifuffuka na Dutch. Tabbatar da kashe kudi yayin da mutum ya boye hakikanin yanayin, asalinsa, baƙon mutum ko ƙaura daga wani abin alkhairi, ko ɓoye wa yake mai cin riba ko mai riƙe abu mai kyau yayin da yake sane da kyakkyawan abin da aka samu daga ayyukan laifi. Ko da mutum bai san ainihin abin da ke fitowa daga ayyukan laifi ba amma yana iya ɗauka cewa bisa dalilin haka ne, za a same shi da laifin kashe kuɗi. Wadannan ayyukan suna da hukuncin dauri har zuwa shekaru hudu (saboda fargabar asalin mai laifin), ɗaurin kurkuku har zuwa shekara guda (don samun zato mai ma'ana) ko tarar har Euro 67.000. An kafa wannan a cikin labarin na 23 na kundin laifuffuka na Dutch. Mutumin da ya saba da matsalar hada-hadar kudade, ana iya daure shi har zuwa shekara shida.

Da ke ƙasa akwai misalai kaɗan waɗanda kotunan Dutch suka zartar game da amfani da cryptocurrency:

  • Akwai wani batun wanda aka zargi mutum da laifin karkatar da kuɗi. Ya karɓi kuɗin da aka samo ta juyawa bitcoins zuwa fiat kudi. An samo waɗannan bitcoins ta hanyar yanar gizo mai duhu, wanda akan ɓoye adireshin IP na masu amfani. Bincike ya nuna yanar gizo mai duhu ana amfani da ita gabaɗaya don cinikin kaya ba bisa ƙa'ida ba, da za a biya tare da bitcoins. Saboda haka, kotu ta ɗauka bitcoins da aka samu ta hanyar yanar gizo mai duhu suna asali ne daga laifi. Kotun ta ce wanda ake tuhumar ya karbi kudin da aka samu ta hanyar canza bitcoins na asalin mai laifin zuwa kudin shigar mata. Wanda ake zargin ya san cewa bitcoins yawanci asalin laifi ne. Duk da haka, bai bincika asalin kudin kuɗi wanda ya samu ba. Saboda haka, ya yarda da babban damar cewa an samu kuɗin da aka karɓa ta hanyar ayyukan da ba bisa doka ba. An same shi da laifin tara kudaden haram. [1]
  • A wannan yanayin, Ma'aikatar Ba da Bayani da Bincike (a cikin Yaren mutanen Holland: FIOD) sun fara bincike kan yan kasuwar bitcoin. Wanda ake zargin, a wannan yanayin, ya samar da bitcoins ga 'yan kasuwa kuma ya canza su da asarar kudi. Wanda ake zargin ya yi amfani da walat kan yanar gizo wanda aka sanya tarin bitcoins, wanda aka samu daga yanar gizo mai duhu. Kamar yadda aka ambata a cikin shari'ar da ke sama, an ɗauka waɗannan bitcoins daga asali ba bisa doka ba. Wanda ake zargin ya ki yin bayani dalla-dalla game da asalin bitcoins. Kotun ta ce wanda ake tuhumar yana da masaniyar asalin haramtacciyar asalin bitcoins din tunda ya je wurin 'yan kasuwa wadanda ke ba da tabbacin asirin abokan kasuwancinsu kuma suka nemi babban kwamiti na wannan hidimar. Saboda haka, kotu ta ce za a iya ɗaukar manufar wanda ake zargin. An same shi da laifin tara kudaden haram. [2]
  • Maganar ta gaba ta shafi bankin Dutch, ING. ING ya shiga kwangilar banki tare da dan kasuwar bitcoin. A matsayin banki, ING yana da takamaiman aikin saka idanu da bincike. Sun gano abokin kasuwancinsu sunyi amfani da kuɗin kuɗi don siyan bitcoins don ɓangare na uku. ING sun kawo karshen dangantakar tasu tunda asalin biyan kudaden sunada damar bincike kuma ana iya samun kudin ta hanyar ayyukan haram. ING sun ji kamar basu iya cika alƙawarin KYC ba tunda ba su iya bada garantin cewa ba a yi amfani da asusun su ba don kashe kuɗi da kuma guje wa haɗarin da ke tattare da aminci. Kotun ta ce abokin ING din bai isa ya tabbatar da cewa kudin na asalin asalin halal ne. Saboda haka, an ba ING damar dakatar da dangantakar banki. [3]

Wadannan hukunce-hukuncen sun nuna cewa yin aiki tare da cryptocurrency na iya haifar da haɗari idan yazo da yarda. Lokacin da ba a san asalin cryptocurrency ba, kuma kuɗin na iya samo asali daga yanar gizo mai duhu, tuhuma game da matsalar karɓar kuɗi na iya tashi a sauƙaƙe.

yarda

Tunda har yanzu ba a kayyade cryptocurrency ba kuma an tabbatar da asircewar ma'amaloli, yana da kyakkyawar hanyar biyan kuɗi don amfani da shi don ayyukan laifi. Sabili da haka, cryptocurrency yana da wasu ma'anan ma'ana a cikin Netherlands. Hakanan ana nuna wannan a cikin gaskiyar cewa Ma'aikatar Kula da Kuɗi ta Dutch da Hukumar Kasuwancin suna ba da shawara game da ciniki a cikin cryptocurrencies. Sun bayyana cewa amfani da abubuwan da ake kira cryptocurrencies na da hadari dangane da laifuffukan tattalin arziki, tunda haramtattun kudade, yaudara, zamba, da magudi na iya tasowa cikin sauki. [4] Wannan yana nufin dole ne ku zama cikakke sosai tare da yarda yayin ma'amala da cryptocurrency. Dole ne ku iya nuna cewa ba a samo cryptocurrency da kuka karɓa ta hanyar ayyukan haram. Dole ne ku sami damar tabbatar da cewa kun binciki asalin asalin cryptocurrency da kuka karɓa. Wannan na iya zama da wahala ga mutanen da suke amfani da cryptocurrency yawanci ba a iya gano su. Mafi yawan lokuta, lokacin da Kotun Dutch ta yanke hukunci game da batun cryptocurrency, yana cikin maharan masu laifi. A yanzu, hukumomi ba sa sa ido sosai game da kasuwanci a cikin abubuwan cryptocurrencies. Koyaya, cryptocurrency suna da hankalinsu. Sabili da haka, lokacin da kamfani ke da dangantaka da cryptocurrency, hukumomi za su kasance masu faɗakarwa. Da alama hukumomi zasu so sanin yadda ake samun cryptocurrency da kuma menene asalin kudin. Idan ba za ku iya amsa waɗannan tambayoyin da kyau ba, zato na safarar kuɗi ko wasu laifuka na laifi na iya tashi kuma za a iya fara bincike game da ƙungiyarku.

Gua'idar cryptocurrency

Kamar yadda aka fada a sama, cryptocurrency ba a tsara ta ba tukuna. Koyaya, kasuwanci da amfani da cryptocurrencies tabbas za a kayyade shi sosai, saboda haɗarin cryptocurrency da masu laifi da haɗarin kuɗi. Tsarin doka na cryptocurrency shine batun tattaunawa a duk duniya. Asusun ba da Lamuni na Duniya (kungiyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ke aiki kan hadin gwiwar hada-hadar kudi ta duniya, da tabbatar da daidaituwar kudi da saukaka harkokin cinikayyar kasa da kasa) na yin kira ga daidaito na duniya game da abubuwan da ake kira cryptocurrencies kamar yadda ta yi gargadi game da hadarin kudi da na laifi. Ungiyar Tarayyar Turai tana mahawara kan daidaita ko sa ido game da abubuwan da ake kira cryptocurrencies, kodayake ba su ƙirƙirar takamaiman doka ba tukuna. Bugu da ƙari, daidaita batun cryptocurrency abun tattaunawa ne a ƙasashe daban-daban, kamar China, Koriya ta Kudu, da Rasha. Waɗannan ƙasashe suna ɗauka ko suna son ɗaukar matakai don kafa ƙa'idodi game da abubuwan da ake kira cryptocurrencies. A cikin Netherlands, Hukumar Kula da Kuɗi da Kasuwancin ta nuna cewa kamfanoni masu saka jari suna da babban aikin kulawa lokacin da suke ba da Bitcoin-nan gaba don masu saka jari a cikin Netherlands. Wannan ya kunshi cewa wadannan kamfanonin saka hannun jari dole ne su kula da sha'awar abokan cinikin su ta hanyar kwarewa, adalci da gaskiya. [5] Tattaunawar duniya game da ƙa'idar cryptocurrency ta nuna cewa yawancin ƙungiyoyi suna tunanin ya zama dole a kafa aƙalla wasu irin doka.

Kammalawa

Babu matsala a faɗi cewa cryptocurrency tana haɓaka. Koyaya, mutane suna da alama suna mantawa da cewa kasuwanci da yin amfani da waɗannan tsabar kudi na iya haɗuwa da wasu haɗari. Kafin ku san shi, zaku iya fada cikin ikon Criminala'idar Sile na Dutch lokacin da ake ma'amala da cryptocurrency. Wadannan kudaden ana alakanta su da ayyukan masu aikata laifuka, musamman batun karban kudi. Saboda haka yarda yana da matukar muhimmanci ga kamfanonin da basa son a gurfanar dasu gaban kuliya akan laifuka. Sanin asalin abubuwan cryptocurrencies suna taka rawa sosai a wannan. Tun da cryptocurrency yana da ɗan ra’ayin da bai dace ba, ƙasashe da ƙungiyoyi suna yin muhawara a kan ko a kafa ƙa’idoji game da batun cryptocurrency. Kodayake wasu ƙasashe sun riga sun ɗauki matakai don tsara doka, har yanzu yana iya ɗaukar ɗan lokaci kafin a aiwatar da dokokin duniya. Sabili da haka, yana da mahimmanci ga kamfanoni don yin hankali lokacin da ake ma'amala da ma'anar cryptocurrency kuma tabbatar da cewa sun kula da yarda.

lamba

Idan kuna da tambayoyi ko sharhi bayan karanta wannan labarin, da fatan za ku iya tuntuɓar Maxim Hodak, babban lauya a Law & More via [email kariya], ko Tom Meevis, lauya-at-law a Law & More via [email kariya], ko kira +31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716.

[2] ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992.

[3] ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376.

[4] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Reële cryptocurrencies, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/nov/risico-cryptocurrencies.

[5] Rahoto Fintech da Ayyukan Kasuwanci: Binciken farko, Asusun bada lamuni na duniya 2017.

[6] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Bitcoin Futures: AFM op', https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/dec/bitcoin-futures-zorgplicht.

Share
Law & More B.V.