Cryptocurrency: sane da haɗarin haɗarin

Gabatarwa

A cikin al'umma mai saurin tasowa, cryptocurrency ya zama sananne. A halin yanzu, akwai nau'ikan cryptocurrency da yawa, irin su Bitcoin, Ethereum, da Litecoin. Cryptocurrencies na zamani ne na dijital, kuma ana adana agogo da fasaha ta amfani da fasaha na blockchain. Wannan fasaha tana kiyaye rikodin rikodin kowane ma'amala duk a wuri guda. Babu wanda yake iko da blockchain tunda waɗannan sarƙoƙi suna ƙin faɗi a duk kwamfutar da take da walat ɗin cryptocurrency. Har ila yau, fasahar Blockchain tana ba da isasshen sanarwa ga masu amfani da cryptocurrency. Rashin sarrafawa da kuma rashin sanin amfanin masu amfani na iya haifar da wasu haɗari ga entrepreneursan kasuwar da ke son yin amfani da cryptocurrency a kamfaninsu. Wannan labarin cigaban labarin da muka gabata, 'Cryptocurrency: halayen shari'a na fasahar juyin juya hali'. Ganin cewa wannan labarin da ya gabata yafi kusanci da janar na shari'a na cryptocurrency, wannan labarin ya mayar da hankali kan haɗarin da masu kasuwancin zasu iya fuskanta yayin ma'amala da cryptocurrency da mahimmancin yarda.

Hadarin tuhuma da yin garkuwa da mutane

Duk da yake cryptocurrency samu shahara, har yanzu ba a tsara shi a cikin Netherlands da sauran Turai. Yan majalisan na aiki kan aiwatar da cikakkun dokoki, amma wannan zaiyi dogon tsari. Koyaya, kotunan ƙasa ta Dutch sun riga sun yanke hukunce-hukunce da yawa a cikin shari'o'in da suka shafi cryptocurrency. Kodayake 'yan yanke shawara game da matsayin doka na cryptocurrency, yawancin shari'o'in sun kasance a cikin yanayin masu laifi. Satar kudi ta taka rawa sosai a wadannan hukunce-hukuncen.

Laaddamar da kuɗi wani yanki ne da yakamata a yi la’akari da shi don tabbatar da cewa ƙungiyarku ba ta faɗi ƙarƙashin Criminala'idar Sashin Hotunan na Dutch ba. Kashe kudade wani abu ne da zai ladabtar da shi a karkashin dokar ta Dutch. An kafa wannan a cikin labaran 420bis, 420ter da 420 na kundin laifuffuka na Dutch. Tabbatar da kashe kudi yayin da mutum ya boye hakikanin yanayin, asalinsa, baƙon mutum ko ƙaura daga wani abin alkhairi, ko ɓoye wa yake mai cin riba ko mai riƙe abu mai kyau yayin da yake sane da kyakkyawan abin da aka samu daga ayyukan laifi. Ko da mutum bai san ainihin abin da ke fitowa daga ayyukan laifi ba amma yana iya ɗauka cewa bisa dalilin haka ne, za a same shi da laifin kashe kuɗi. Wadannan ayyukan suna da hukuncin dauri har zuwa shekaru hudu (saboda fargabar asalin mai laifin), ɗaurin kurkuku har zuwa shekara guda (don samun zato mai ma'ana) ko tarar har Euro 67.000. An kafa wannan a cikin labarin na 23 na kundin laifuffuka na Dutch. Mutumin da ya saba da matsalar hada-hadar kudade, ana iya daure shi har zuwa shekara shida.

Da ke ƙasa akwai misalai kaɗan waɗanda kotunan Dutch suka zartar game da amfani da cryptocurrency:

  • Akwai wani batun wanda aka zargi mutum da laifin karkatar da kuɗi. Ya karɓi kuɗin da aka samo ta juyawa bitcoins zuwa fiat kudi. An samo waɗannan bitcoins ta hanyar yanar gizo mai duhu, wanda akan ɓoye adireshin IP na masu amfani. Bincike ya nuna yanar gizo mai duhu ana amfani da ita gabaɗaya don cinikin kaya ba bisa ƙa'ida ba, da za a biya tare da bitcoins. Saboda haka, kotu ta ɗauka bitcoins da aka samu ta hanyar yanar gizo mai duhu suna asali ne daga laifi. Kotun ta ce wanda ake tuhumar ya karbi kudin da aka samu ta hanyar canza bitcoins na asalin mai laifin zuwa kudin shigar mata. Wanda ake zargin ya san cewa bitcoins yawanci asalin laifi ne. Duk da haka, bai bincika asalin kudin kuɗi wanda ya samu ba. Saboda haka, ya yarda da babban damar cewa an samu kuɗin da aka karɓa ta hanyar ayyukan da ba bisa doka ba. An same shi da laifin tara kudaden haram. [1]
  • A wannan yanayin, Ma'aikatar Ba da Bayani da Bincike (a cikin Yaren mutanen Holland: FIOD) sun fara bincike kan yan kasuwar bitcoin. Wanda ake zargin, a wannan yanayin, ya samar da bitcoins ga 'yan kasuwa kuma ya canza su da asarar kudi. Wanda ake zargin ya yi amfani da walat kan yanar gizo wanda aka sanya tarin bitcoins, wanda aka samu daga yanar gizo mai duhu. Kamar yadda aka ambata a cikin shari'ar da ke sama, an ɗauka waɗannan bitcoins daga asali ba bisa doka ba. Wanda ake zargin ya ki yin bayani dalla-dalla game da asalin bitcoins. Kotun ta ce wanda ake tuhumar yana da masaniyar asalin haramtacciyar asalin bitcoins din tunda ya je wurin 'yan kasuwa wadanda ke ba da tabbacin asirin abokan kasuwancinsu kuma suka nemi babban kwamiti na wannan hidimar. Saboda haka, kotu ta ce za a iya ɗaukar manufar wanda ake zargin. An same shi da laifin tara kudaden haram. [2]
  • Maganar ta gaba ta shafi bankin Dutch, ING. ING ya shiga kwangilar banki tare da dan kasuwar bitcoin. A matsayin banki, ING yana da takamaiman aikin saka idanu da bincike. Sun gano abokin kasuwancinsu sunyi amfani da kuɗin kuɗi don siyan bitcoins don ɓangare na uku. ING sun kawo karshen dangantakar tasu tunda asalin biyan kudaden sunada damar bincike kuma ana iya samun kudin ta hanyar ayyukan haram. ING sun ji kamar basu iya cika alƙawarin KYC ba tunda ba su iya bada garantin cewa ba a yi amfani da asusun su ba don kashe kuɗi da kuma guje wa haɗarin da ke tattare da aminci. Kotun ta ce abokin ING din bai isa ya tabbatar da cewa kudin na asalin asalin halal ne. Saboda haka, an ba ING damar dakatar da dangantakar banki. [3]

Wadannan hukunce-hukuncen sun nuna cewa yin aiki tare da cryptocurrency na iya haifar da haɗari idan yazo da yarda. Lokacin da ba a san asalin cryptocurrency ba, kuma kuɗin na iya samo asali daga yanar gizo mai duhu, tuhuma game da matsalar karɓar kuɗi na iya tashi a sauƙaƙe.

yarda

Tunda har yanzu ba'a tsara cryptocurrency ba kuma an tabbatar da rashin ma'amala a ma'amaloli, hanya ce mai kyau ta biyan kudi don amfani dashi ga ayyukan masu laifi. Saboda haka, cryptocurrency yana da wasu nau'in ma'anar mara kyau a cikin Netherlands. An kuma nuna wannan a gaskiyar cewa Ma'aikatar Kasuwanci ta andasar Holland da Harkokin Kasuwanci suna ba da shawara game da ciniki a cikin cryptocurrencies. Sun bayyana cewa yin amfani da cryptocurrencies yana haifar da haɗari dangane da laifukan tattalin arziƙi, tun da tsabar kuɗi, yaudara, zamba, da magudi za su iya tashi cikin sauƙin. [4] Wannan yana nufin dole ne ku kasance daidai sosai tare da yarda yayin ma'amala da ma'anar cryptocurrency. Dole ne ku iya nuna cewa ba a karɓar cryptocurrency da kuka samu ta hanyar ayyukan da ba bisa ƙa'ida ba. Dole ne ku iya tabbatar da cewa kun binciki ainihin abubuwan da kuka samo. Wannan na iya zama da wahala ga mutanen da ke amfani da cryptocurrency yawanci ba a san su ba. Mafi sau da yawa, lokacin da Kotun Dutch ke da hukunci game da cryptocurrency, yana cikin ƙarar laifi. A yanzu, hukumomi ba sa sa ido sosai kan ciniki a cikin cryptocurrencies. Koyaya, cryptocurrency yana da hankalin su. Saboda haka, lokacin da kamfani ke da alaƙa da cryptocurrency, hukumomi zasu zama faɗakarwa sosai. Tabbas hukumomi za su so sanin yadda aka samo cryptocurrency da menene asalin kudin. Idan ba ku iya amsa waɗannan tambayoyin da kyau ba, tuhuma game da ƙididdigar kuɗi ko wasu laifuka na iya tasowa kuma ana iya fara bincike game da ƙungiyar ku.

Gua'idar cryptocurrency

Kamar yadda aka fada a sama, har yanzu ba'a tsara cryptocurrency ba. Koyaya, cinikayya da amfani da cryptocurrencies tabbas za a tsaftace su sosai, saboda masu haɗari da haɗarin haɗari na cryptocurrency entails. Ofa'idar cryptocurrency wani batun tattaunawa ne a duk faɗin duniya. Asusun Ba da Lamuni na Duniya (wata ƙungiya ta Majalisar oninkin Duniya da ke aiki a kan haɗin gwiwar kuɗin duniya, da tabbatar da dorewar tattalin arziƙi da sauƙaƙe kasuwancin ƙasa) yana kira ga daidaitawar duniya game da batun cryptocurrencies kamar yadda ya yi gargaɗi game da haɗarin kuɗi da na masu laifi. [5] Unionungiyar Tarayyar Turai tana yin mahawara ko don daidaitawa ko saka idanu kan hanyoyin cryptocurrency, kodayake ba su kafa takamaiman doka ba. Bugu da ƙari kuma, dokar cryptocurrency batun batun tattaunawa ne a ƙasashe da yawa na mutum, kamar China, Koriya ta Kudu, da Rasha. Wadannan ƙasashe suna ɗauka ko suna son ɗaukar matakai don kafa dokoki game da cryptocurrencies. A cikin Netherlands, Harkokin Kasuwancin Kasuwanci da Harkokin Kasuwanci sun nuna cewa kamfanonin zuba jari suna da babban aikin kulawa yayin da suke ba da makomar Bitcoin-zuwa ga masu siyar da hannun jarin a cikin Netherlands. Wannan ya haɗu da cewa waɗannan kamfanonin zuba jari dole ne su kula da sha'awar abokan cinikin su ta hanyar kwararru, gaskiya da gaskiya. [6] Tattaunawa ta duniya akan tsarin cryptocurrency yana nuna cewa da yawa daga cikin kungiyoyi suna tsammanin ya zama dole don kafa akalla wasu irin dokokin.

Kammalawa

Babu matsala a faɗi cewa cryptocurrency tana haɓaka. Koyaya, mutane suna da alama suna mantawa da cewa kasuwanci da yin amfani da waɗannan tsabar kudi na iya haɗuwa da wasu haɗari. Kafin ku san shi, zaku iya fada cikin ikon Criminala'idar Sile na Dutch lokacin da ake ma'amala da cryptocurrency. Wadannan kudaden ana alakanta su da ayyukan masu aikata laifuka, musamman batun karban kudi. Saboda haka yarda yana da matukar muhimmanci ga kamfanonin da basa son a gurfanar dasu gaban kuliya akan laifuka. Sanin asalin abubuwan cryptocurrencies suna taka rawa sosai a wannan. Tun da cryptocurrency yana da ɗan ra’ayin da bai dace ba, ƙasashe da ƙungiyoyi suna yin muhawara a kan ko a kafa ƙa’idoji game da batun cryptocurrency. Kodayake wasu ƙasashe sun riga sun ɗauki matakai don tsara doka, har yanzu yana iya ɗaukar ɗan lokaci kafin a aiwatar da dokokin duniya. Sabili da haka, yana da mahimmanci ga kamfanoni don yin hankali lokacin da ake ma'amala da ma'anar cryptocurrency kuma tabbatar da cewa sun kula da yarda.

lamba

Idan kuna da tambayoyi ko sharhi bayan karanta wannan labarin, da fatan za ku iya tuntuɓar Maxim Hodak, babban lauya a Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or Tom Meevis, an attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716.

[2] ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992.

[3] ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376.

[4] Finfinële Markten, 'Reële cryptocurrencies, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/nov/risico-cryptocurrencies.

[5] Rahoton Fintech da Ayyukan Kasuwanci: Binciken farko, Asusun bada lamuni na duniya 2017.

[6] Financiële Markten, Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Futures na Bitcoin: AFM op', https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/dec/bitcoin-futures-zorgplicht.

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